The name, Elephanta was given by the Portuguese as there was a large elephant sculpture in the island, when it was held by them as a naval outpost. Otherwise this island was known as Gharapuri.

Elephanta island stands in stark contrast with hectic Mumbai city. Though it is just 11 kilometers (about 7 miles) from the heart of the city, Elephanta appears as a remote country and that too centuries afar.
Unlike many other ancient monuments in India, very little is known about the history of Elephanta. In other words who and when theses monuments were executed still remains as a matter of speculation and debate.

Much of the beliefs on the patrons of this mysterious island are based on the stylistic ground on which the caves and its sculptures are executed.

The most convincing of the theories tells as that Elephanta caves were executed during the period 450 to 750 AD. The warrior king Pulakesin II of the Chalukyas of Badami dynasty, is attributed with commissioning of a significant portion of the caves.
Elephanta Island came under the dominions of at least half a dozen powers that ruled this region over the centuries.
That include the Mauryas of Konkan, Trikutakas , Chalukyas of Badami, Silaharas, Rashtrakutas , Kalyani Chalukyas , Yadavas of Deogiri, Shahi dynasty of Gujarat , the Portuguese , the Marathas and also the British.

Leaving the history behind for a while, let us see the attractions of Elephanta and a few tips to visit this UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The centerpiece of Elephant is the gigantic cave temple complex (Cave 1) with many shrines and generously decorated walls with carved panels.

In fact a great amount of your time in Elephanta would be spending in this cave, particularly in front of each of these rock-cut panels.

They are by any scale the most awe-inspiring rock cut art of India.
The word cave is a bit misleading, when it comes to comprehending this architectural feast. Once you are inside, there is hardly anything that reminds you of a cave. It is unusually tall for a cave and spacious with rows of smartly finished pillars supporting the roof. The central hall of the cave opens to three porches at east, west and north.


There are about 24 sculptural panels on the walls of the Cave 1 (main cave) and the shrines within. The whole thing – the shrines, pillars and panels – are executed by removing rock from a giant rocky hill. In otherwise everything made by painstakingly scooping out rather than ‘installing’ them into the cave.

For the main cave of Elephanta, your tour plan is essentially moving from one panel to the other, visiting the shrines within and generally enjoying settings as a whole.
Though there are no particular orders to be followed, in all probability you would start with the two panes located on either sides of the northern porch as you enter the cave through its main entrance.
From outside this portico appears as a 3 aisled hall with two massive pillars on either side of the steps.

As you enter the cave, on your left is the panel of Mahayogi Shiva and on the right is the Nataraja Shiva.

Let us go straight to the deeper end of the cave which is opposite to portico you've entered. Before you've hit the darker end of the cave, you would cross the central hall of the cave temple with many rows of giant pillars of either side.

Stand in the darker end of the cave for a few minutes before your eyes get accustomed to the dimly lit environs.

There are three panels in a row at this side of the cave. The center piece, the star attraction of Elephanta cave temple iconic image of the three headed Shiva called Mahesh , the great Lord.

From Cave 1 proceed to Cave 2 to till Cave 5  , and Cave 3 and Cave 4 in between them which are connected by a paved trail.


Elephanta Island Map with the caves and other attractions

Elephanta Island Map with the caves and other attractions

Everything about Elephanta!

Elephants Island Map

Elephanta Cave 6 and Cave 7

Cave 6 and 7 are located in the eastern hill in Elephanta Island. It's not very frequented by visitors compared to the rest of the caves.

Ardhanari view from Parvati side

Ardhanarishvara at Elephanta

Ardhanarishvara, literally translates into the god (Siva) half female.For its artistic excellence , this image is arguably the second best image, after the three headed Mahesh Murthy (also sometimes referred as Trimurthy ) at Elephanta.


The unfinished cave 5 in elephanta island

Elephanta Cave 5

Though it's an unfinished cave, a visit can give you good idea of the how the work in progress sites looked like during the excavation of caves.


Ferry returning to Mumbai from Elephanta. The Elephanta Island in the backdrop.

How to reach Elephanta Caves

Elephanta is an island off the Mumbai (Bombay) coast.So the first point is to get to Mumbai.


Ardhanari image at Elephanta

Mythical Themes at Elephanta

The choice of the themes in Elephanta's panels is an interesting mix... anything from love to contemplation to violence to performing arts to yoga. In Elephanta you'll see some of the highest watermarks of medieval India's sculptural art.


Nataraja at Elephanta Caves

Nataraja at Elephanta

Nataraja Panel is located at the entry point of the main cave, opposite to the Mahayogi Shiva at Elephanta.After the three panels (Gangadhara at Elephanta , Mahesh Murthy at Elephanta and Ardhanarishvara at Elephanta ) which are located in the deep wall of the cave, this is the most dynamic of all t...


View from Elephanta Island

History of Elephanta

The most convincing of the theories on its origin tell Elephanta caves were executed during the period 450 to 750 AD. Incidentally, this period also marks the decline of Buddhism in India and the revival of the Brahmanical traditions.