The most convincing of the theories on its origin tell Elephanta caves were executed during the period 450 to 750 AD. Incidentally, this period also marks the decline of Buddhism in India and the revival of the Brahmanical traditions.

The warrior king Pulakesin II of the Chalukyas of Badami dynasty, is attributed with commissioning of a significant portion of the caves.

Elephanta Island came under the dominions of at least half a dozen powers that ruled this region over the centuries 400 BC to the modern times.

That include the Mauryas of Konkan, Trikutakas , Chalukyas of Badami, Silaharas, Rashtrakutas , Kalyani Chalukyas , Yadavas of Deogiri, Shahi dynasty of Gujarat , the Portuguese , the Marathas and also the British. The Island was called Gharapuri.

The caves of Shiva were most likely executed during the mid 6th century during the Konkan Maurya's period. Being a major ancient trade gateway, it is also likely that its patrons were the rich trade-merchant guilds, than any particular king.

Even before the Hindu caves were excavated, the island was a Buddhist center. The remains of the Buddhists Stupas in Elephanta probably belongs to the early phase of Buddhism dating 2nd century BC.

During the early colonial period the clusters of islands that eventually became the modern day Mumbai was under Portuguese control.

Apart from the natural causes, a great deal of damage to the sculptures in Elephanta is attributed to the Portuguese soldiers. It was recorded by many European travelers, the vandalism caused to the caves during this period.

The sculptured panels were used for shooting practices. For the bulk of the panels, the lower sections were destroyed, faces disfigured.

They did everything possible to break that massive elephant that once stood on the shore. In fact the Portuguese gave the name Elephanta to this island thanks to this sculpture, otherwise the island was called Gharapuri ('Island of Caves'). This finally collapsed in 1814, the British moved it to the mainland and assembled at the Victoria Garden in Mumbai.

In 1540 a large inscribed stone at the entry point of the island was taken to Portuguese by the Portuguese viceroy João de Castro, allegedly for the epigraphical decipherment of inscriptions written on it.

This stone went untraceable. Gone with it is a very valuable piece of historic artifact that could throw some light on the circumstance led to the execution of these caves, and more importantly who were its patrons.

In 1661 the cluster of islands that formed Mumbai came to the British Crown as dowry of the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, but Elephanta excluded. This island remains as a Portuguese outpost for some times to come.

From an anti-piracy and military standpoint point, the island remained a strategic point, especially when Mumbai was gradually made into a busy port city in the subsequent centuries. You can still see a few cannon outposts at a place called the Cannon Hills in Elephanta.

The earliest conservation efforts is dated to 1890 under the then Bombay Public Works Department.

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Canon in Elephanta

Canon in Elephanta

From an anti-piracy and military standpoint point, the island remained a strategic point, especially when Mumbai was gradually made into a busy port city in the subsequent centuries. You can still see a few cannon outposts at a place called the Cannon Hills in Elephanta.

Everything about Elephanta!

The most convincing of the theories on its origin tell Elephanta caves were executed during the period 450 to 750 AD. Incidentally, this period also marks the decline of Buddhism in India and the revival of the Brahmanical traditions.

A ferocious form of Lord Shiva slaying the demon, Andhaka.

Anhdakasura Vadha at Elephanta

The ferocious expression of Shiva in the Andhakasura Vadha panel stands in stark contrast with the aspects depicted in other panels.

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Caves in Elephanta

Elephanta in a Nutshell

What is Elephanta?Elephanta Caves is UNESCO World Heritage site is a fine specimen of rock cut architecture and art of medieval India.

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Gangadhara and Parvathi

Gangadhara at Elephanta

Gangadhara, roughly translates the 'Bearer of the Ganges'.A complex sequence of events led to bringing the heavenly river Ganga (Ganges) to Earth.

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Entrance to the cave 3 in Elephanta

Elephanta Cave 3

This a large cave complex, probably second only to the main Cave.The facade is impressive with a row of large cussion capital pillars.

Facade of Elephanta Cave 2

Elephanta Cave 2

This is an unfinished cave, located near Cave 1, that is the main attraction in Elephanta.Follow the paved trail from the courtyard of the main cave (Cave 1), you can spot cave 2 on your right, slightly up on the hillside.

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Ferry point Elephanta

Ferry to Elephanta

Elephanta Ferry (launch) services operate from the Gateway of India ferry point also called the Apollo Bandar.

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Shiva-Parvati of Elephanta

Shiva-Parvathi at Elephanta

In this panel Parvathi, the consort of Lord Shiva is portrayed in a affectionate but somewhat upset mood.Her head is turned away from Shiva.The theme revolves around a game of dice the couple played.

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